Atatürk’ün reform ve devrimleri ingilizce

Atatürk'ün reform ve devrimleri ingilizce

Atatürk’ün reform ve devrimleri ingilizce

Atatürk’s reforms and revolutions

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Revolutions, Atatürk’s Principles (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri) are a series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic major drastic progressive changes that were designed to modernize the new Republic of Turkey into a democratic, social, constitutional and secular nation-state. They were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal.

The depth, breadth and impacts of these changes and the progressivism in them  elevate them to a level importance that these changes deserve to be categorized as revolutions.

One may think that  some accomplishments given in the list below , such as introduction of  Commercial Law,  do not seem to be major accomplishments. However, a closer look into these reveals that  since they are introduced first time and had no predecessors before and the progressive impact  they caused are sufficient enough to classify them as revolutions.

Atatürk was a military genius, a charismatic leader, also a comprehensive reformer in his life. It was important at the time for the Republic of Turkey to be modernized in order to progress towards the level of contemporary civilizations and to be an active member of the culturally developed communities. Mustafa Kemal modernized the life of his country.

Atatürk introduced reforms which he considered of vital importance for the salvation and survival of his people between 1924-1938. These reforms were enthusiastically welcomed by the Turkish people.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Revolutions

Atatürk undertook a series of reforms to raise Turkey to a level of modern civilized country. These reforms can be grouped under five basic titles.

1. Political Reforms

The Sultanate was abolished (1st November 1922)

The Republic was declared (29 October 1923)

Abolishment of the caliph (3 March 1924)

2. Social Reforms

Recognition of equal rights of men and women (1926 – 1934). The legal position of women and their place in society in the new republic was greatly improved (for example the active and passive voting right at national and local elections).

Reform of Headgear and Dress (25 November 1925)

Closure of mausoleums and dervish lodges, closing of sacred tombs as places of worship. (30 November 1925)

The surname law(21 June 1934)

Adoption of the solar calendar and changing Friday (the Moslem holy day) into a weekday and Sunday becoming the official day of rest of the week (1925)

International numeric system was introduced. ( 1928)

Adoption of international hours and measurements (1925 – 1931)

The nicknames and personal titles were abolished (26 November 1934)

3. Legal Reforms

Abolishment of the religious courts (1924 – 1937)

Implementation of secular law structure nationwide by adoption of Turkish Civil Code and Swiss civil laws (1924 – 1937).  Penal Statute Book and the Trade Law Book were also introduced.

The liberation of the women of Turkey by giving them political and social rights.

a) Rights brought with “Medeni Kanun” (Civilized Law) (1926)

b) Rights for women to be elected for the parliament.

4. Reforms in the fields of education and culture

Unification of education. Abolition of Medreses, renovations of school programs according to contemporary and national needs, opening of new universities. (3 March 1924)

Adoption of new Turkish alphabet and purification of Turkish language from foreign words (1 November 1928)

Establishment of Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931 – 1932)

Regulation of the university education (31 May 1933)

Innovations in fine arts

5. Economic Reforms

Abolition of tithe

Encouragement of the farmers

Establishment of model farms

Establishment of industrial facilities, and putting into effect a law for Incentives for the Industry

Putting into effect Ist and IInd Development Plans (1933-1937), to develop transportation networks

FOR DETAILS READ BELOW;

Founder of the Republic

“Sovereignty belongs unconditionally to the people.”

October 29, 1923 is a fateful date in Turkish history. On that date. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the liberator of his country, proclaimed the Republic of Turkey. The new homogeneous nation-state stood in sharp contrast to the multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire out of whose ashes it arose. The dynasty and theocratic Ottoman system, with its Sultanate and Caliphate, thus came to and end. Atatürk’s Turkey dedicated itself to the sovereignty of the national will – to the creation of, in President’s words, “the state of the people “.

The Republic swiftly moved to put an end to the so-called “Capitulations “, the special rights and previledges that the Ottomans had granted to some European powers.

The New Turkey’s ideology was, and remains, “Kemalism”, later known as “Atatürkism”. Its basic principles stress the republican form of government representing the power of electorate, secular administration, nationalism, mixed economy with state participation in many of the vital sectors, and modernization. Atatürkism introduced to Turkey the process of parliamentary and participatory democracy.

The first Moslem nation to become a Republic, Turkey has served since the early 1920s as a model for Moslem and non-Moslem nations in the emerging world.

Legal Transformation

“We must liberate our concepts of justice, our laws and legal institutions from the bonds which hold a tight grip on us although they are incompatible with the needs of our century.”

Between 1926 and 1930, the Turkish Republic achieved a legal transformation which might have required decades in most other countries. Religious laws were abolished, and a secular system of jurisprudence introduced. The concepts, the texts and contexts of the laws were made harmonious with the progressive thrust of Atatürk’s Turkey. ” The nation”, Atatürk said, ” has placed its faith in the precept that all laws should be inspired by actual needs here on earth as a basic fact of national life.”

Among the far-reaching changes were the new Civil Code, Penal Code, and Business Law, based on the Swiss, Italian and German models respectively.

The new legal system made all citizens – men and women, rich and poor – equal before the law. It gave Turkey a firm foundation for a society of justice and equal rights.

Social Reforms

“The major challenge facing us is to elevate our national life to the highest level of civilization and prosperity.”

Atatürk’s aim was to modernize Turkish life in order to give his nation a new sense of dignity, equality, and happiness. After more than three centuries of high achievement, the Ottoman Empire had declined from the 17th to the early 20th Century: With Sultans presiding over a social and economic system mired in backwardness, the Ottoman state had become hopelessly outmoded for the modern times. Atatürk resolved to lead his country out of the crumbling past into a brave new future.

In his program of modernization, secular government and education played a major role. Making religious faith a matter of individual conscience, he created a truly secular system in Turkey, where the vast Moslem majority and the small Christian and Jewish minorities are free to practice their faith. As a result of Atatürk’s reforms, Turkey -unlike scores of other countries- has fully secular institutions.

The leader of modern Turkey aspired to freedom and equality for all. When he proclaimed the Republic, he announced that ” the new Turkish State is a state of the people and a state by the people.” Having established a populist and egalitarian system, he later observed: “We are a nation without classes or special privilidges.” He also stressed the paramount importance of the peasants, who had long been neglected in the Ottoman times: ” The true owner and master of Turkey is the peasant who is the real producer.”

To give his nation a modern outlook, Atatürk introduced many reforms: European hats replaced the fez; women stopped wearing the veil; all citizens took surnames; and the Islamic calendar gave way to the Western calendar. A vast transformation took place in the urban and rural life. It can be said that few nations have ever experienced anything comparable to the social change in Atatürk’s Turkey.

The realism and pragmatism of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the basis for the Turkish ideology known as “Six Arrows”, the root of which was Atatürk’s insistence upon Turkish independence. His social platform customized for his people, the beliefs in secularism. He believed solidly in the sovereignty of his people and addressed corruption and promoted direct representation in government. His social reforms put in place a safeguard against totalitarianism. He promoted education more than had ever been done in Turkish history, believing it was key to maintaining independence. By 1926, he established a penal code and changed laws regarding women’s rights which gave women equality with men. When he insisted men dispense with wearing a fez for westernized hats, he didn’t enforce women giving up the veil and heavy clothes. He pragmatically allowed the women around him to modernize their attire which slowly brought about change in women’s mode of dress.

Economic Growth

“In order to raise our new Turkey to the level that she is worthy of, we must, under all circumstances, attach the highest importance to the national economy.”

When the Turkish Republic came into being in 1923, it lacked capital, industry, and know-how. Successive wars had decimated manpower, agricultural production stood at a low level, and the huge foreign debts of the defunct Ottoman state confronted the new Republic.

President Atatürk swiftly moved to initiate a dynamic program of economic development. ” Our nation,” he stated, ” has crushed the enemy forces. But to achieve independence we must observe the following rule: National sovereignty should be supported by financial independence. The only power that will propel us to this goal is the economy. No matter how mighty they are, political and military victories cannot endure unless they are crowned by economic triumphs.”

With determination and vigor, Atatürk’s Turkey undertook agricultural expansion, industrial growth, and technological advancement. In mining, transportation, manufacturing, banking, exports, social services, housing, communications, energy, mechanization, and other vital areas, many strides were taken. Within the decade, the gross national product increased five-fold.

Turkey’s economic development during Atatürk’s Presidency was impressive in absolute figures and in comparison to other countries. The synthesis that evolved at that time -state enterprises and private initiative active in both industrial and agricultural growth- serves as the basis of the economic structure not only for Turkey but also in dozen countries.

The economic policies of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk have been the core of the agricultural industrialization of Turkey as well as stimulating the growth and increase in business in manufacturing, mining, and shipping as well as trade nationally and globally. Tourism is also one of Turkey’s thriving industries. Atatürk’s economic policies was significant in elevating the status of Turkey internationally as well as among the Turkish people.

The New Language

“The cornerstone of education is an easy system of reading and writing. The hey to this is the new Turkish alphabet based on the Latin script.”

The most difficult change in any society is probably a language reform. Most nations never attempt it; those who do, usually prefer a gradual approach. Under Atatürk’s Leadership, Turkey undertook the modern world’s swiftest and most extensive language reform. In 1928, when he decided that the Arabic script, which had been used by the Turks for a thousand years, should be replaced with the Latin alphabet. He asked the experts: ” How long would it take ?” Most of them replied: ” At least five years.” ” We shall do it,” Atatürk said,” within five months”

As the 1920s came to an end, Turkey had fully and functionally adopted, with its 29 letters (8 vowels and 21 consonants), has none of the complexities of the Arabic script, which was ill-suited to the Turkish language. The language reform enabled children and adults to read and write within a few months, and to study Western languages with greater effectiveness.

Thousands of words, and some grammatical devices, from the Arabic and Persian, held a tight grip over Ottoman Turkish. In the early 1930s, Atatürk spearheaded the movement to eliminate these borrowings. To replace the loan words from foreign languages, large number of original words, which had been in use in the earlier centuries, where revived, and provincial expressions and new coinages were introduced. The transformation met with unparalleled success: In the 1920s, the written language consisted of more than 80 percent Arabic, Persian, and French words; by the early 1980s the ratio had declined to a mere 10 percent.

Atatürk’s language reform -encompassing the script, grammar and vocabulary- stands as one of the most far-reaching in history. It has overhauled Turkish culture and education.

Women’s Rights

“Everything we see in the world is the creative work of women.”

With abiding faith in the vital importance of women in society, Atatürk launched many reforms to give Turkish women equal rights and opportunities. The new Civil Code, adopted in 1926, abolished polygamy and recognized the equal rights of women in divorce, custody, and inheritance. The entire educational system from the grade school to the university became coeducational. Atatürk greatly admired the support that the national liberation struggle received from women and praised their many contributions: ” In Turkish society, women have not lagged behind men in science, scholarship, and culture. Perhaps they have even gone further ahead.” He gave women the same opportunities as men, including full political rights. In the mid-1930s, 18 women, among them a villager, were elected to the national parliament. Later, Turkey had the world’s first women supreme court justice.

In all walks of life, Atatürk’s Turkey has produced tens of thousands of well-educated women who participate in national life as doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, writers, administrators, executives, and creative artists.

Strides in Education

“The governments most creative and significant duty is education.”

Atatürk regarded education as the force that would galvanize the nation into social and economic development. For this reason, he once said that, after the War of Independence, he would have liked to serve as Minister of Education. As President of the Republic, he spared no effort to stimulate and expand education at all levels and for all segments of the society.

Turkey initiated a most ambitious program of schooling children and adults. From grade school to graduate school, education was made free, secular, and co-educational. Primary education was declared compulsory. The armed forces implemented an extensive program of literacy. Atatürk heralded “The Army of Enlightenment”. With pencil or chalk in hand, he personally instructed children and adults in schoolrooms, parks, and other places. Literacy which had been less than 9 percent in 1923 rose to more than 33 percent by 1938.

Women’s education was very close to Atatürk’s hearth. In 1922, even before proclaiming the Republic, he vowed: ” We shall emphasize putting our women’s secondary and higher education on an equal footing with men.”

To give impetus to science and scholarship, Atatürk transformed the University of Istanbul (founded in the mid-15th century) into a modern university in 1933. A few years later, the University of Ankara became into being. Today, Turkey has major universities all over the country. Except for Europe and North America she has one of the world’s highest ratios of university graduates to population.

Atatürk’s Works on Turkish History

Following the reform of the script, which was meant to be a kind of nationalism in the cultural field, Atatürk concentrated his attention on history. He established the Turkish Historical Society in 1931. Here, Turkey’s history was thoroughly examined and evaluated.

The New Calendar, Weights and Measures, Holidays and Surname Laws and many other reforms were achieved as well. An example of this is the Weekend Act of 1924, the International Time and Calendar System of 1925, the Obligation Law and Commercial Law of 1926, the System of Measures 1933 and the Surname Act, 1934. According to the law passed by the Grand National Assembly in 1932 Turks took surnames and the Nation’s leader was given the surname of Atatürk, “Father of the Turks”.

Culture and the Arts

“We shall make the expansion and rise of Turkish culture in every era the mainstay of the Republic.”

Among the prominent statesmen of the 20th Century few articulated the supreme importance of culture as did Atatürk who stated: ” Culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic.” His view of culture encompassed the nation’s creative legacy as well as the best values of world civilization. It stressed personal and universal humanism. ” Culture,” he said, ” is a basic element in being a person worthy of humanity,” and described Turkey’s ideological thrust as ” a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal.”

To creat the best synthesis, Atatürk underlined the need for the utilization of all the viable elements in the national heritage, including the ancient indigenous cultures, and the arts and techniques of the entire world civilization, past and present. He gave impetus to the study of the earlier civilizations of Anatolia – including Hittite, Phrygian, Lydian, and others. Pre-islamic culture of the Turks became the subject of extensive research which proved that, long before their Seljuk and Ottoman Empires, the Turks had already created a civilization of their own. Atatürk also stressed the folk arts of the countryside as the wellspring of Turkish creativity.

The visual and plastic arts (whose development had been arrested by some bigoted Ottoman officials who claimed that the depiction of the human form was idolatry) flourished during Atatürk’s Presidency. Many museums were opened. Architecture gained new vigor. Classical Western music, opera and ballet as well as the theater took impressive strides. Several hundred “People’s Houses” and the ” People’s Rooms” all over Turkey gave local people and youngsters a wide variety of artistic activities, sports, and other cultural affairs. Book and magazine publication enjoyed a boom. Film industry started to grow. In all walks of cultural life, Atatürk’s inspiration created an upsurge.

Atatürk’s Turkey is living proof of this ideal – a country rich in its own national culture, open to the heritage of world civilization, and at home in the endowments of the modern technological age.

Secularist Reforms

In 1922 the new nationalist regime abolished the Ottoman sultanate, and in 1924 it abolished the caliphate, which the Ottoman sultanate had held for centuries. Thus, for the first time in Islamic history, no ruler claimed the spiritual leadership of Islam; this was still the case in the late 1980s. The withdrawal of Turkey, heir to the Ottoman Empire, as the presumptive leader of the world Muslim community was symbolic of the change in Turkey’s relation to Islam.

Secularism or laicism (Laiklik in Turkish) was one of the “Six Arrows” of Atatürk’s blueprint for modern Turkey; these founding principles of the republic, usually referred to as Atatürkism or Kemalism, were the basis for many of the early republican reforms. As Islam had formed the identity of the Ottoman Empire and its subjects, so secularism molded the new Turkish nation and its citizens.

Establishment of secularism in Turkey was a process of distinguishing church from state or the religious from the nonreligious spheres of life. In the Ottoman Empire, all spheres of life were theoretically ruled by religious law, and religious organizations did not exist apart from the state.

The reforms bearing directly on religion were numerous. They included the abolition of the caliphate; abolition of the office of seyhülislam (Islamic ruler); abolition of the religious hierarchy; closing and confiscation of the dervish lodges, meeting places, and monasteries and outlawing of their rituals and meetings; establishment of government control over the Evkaf, which had been inalienable under Sheriat (Islamic rules); replacement of Sheriat with adapted European legal codes; closing of the religious schools (Medresses); changing from the Islamic to the Western calendar; outlawing the fez for men and frowning on the veil for women, both garments associated with religious tradition; and outlawing the traditional garb of local religious leaders.

The nationalist regime made attempts to give religion a more modern and more national form. The state also supported use of Turkish rather than Arabic at devotions and the substitution of the Turkish word Tanri for the Arabic word Allah. The opposition, however, was strong enough to ensure that Arabic remained the language of prayer. In 1932, for example, the government’s determination that Turkish be used in the call to prayer from the minarets was not well accepted and in 1934 it returned to the Arabic version of the call to prayer. Most notably, the Hagia Sophia (church of the Holy Wisdom, the Byzantine Emperor Justinian’s sixth century basilica, which was converted into a mosque by Mehmed II) was made into a museum.

Peace at Home, Peace in the World

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk – A Man of Peace

“Mankind is a single body and each nation a part of that body. We must never say ‘What does it matter to me if some part of the world is ailing?’ If there is such an illness, we must concern ourselves with it as though we were having that illness.”

A military hero who had won victory after victory against many foreign invaders, Atatürk knew the value of peace and, during his Presidency, did his utmost to secure and strengthen it throughout the world. Few of the giants of the modern times have spoken with Atatürk’s eloquence on the vital need to create a world order based on peace, on the dignity of all human beings, and on the constructive interdependence of all nations. He stated, immediately after the Turkish War of Independence, that “peace is the most effective way for nations to attain prosperity and happiness.” Later as he concluded treaties of friendship and created regional ententes, he affirmed: ” Turks are the friends of all civilized nations.” The new Turkey established cordial relations with all countries, including those powers which had tried a few years earlier to wipe the Turks off the map. She did not pursue a policy of expansionism, and never engaged in any act contrary to peaceful co-existence. Atatürk signed pacts with Greece, Rumania and Yugoslavia in the Balkans, and with Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan in the East. He maintained friendly relations with the Soviet Union, the United States, England, Germany, Italy, France, and all other states. In the early 1930s, he and the Greek Premier Venizelos initiated and signed a treaty of peace and cooperation.

In 1932, the League of Nations invited Turkey to become a member. Many of Atatürk’s ideas and ideals presaged the principles enshrined in the League of Nations and the United Nations.” As clearly as I see daybreak, I have the vision of the rise of the oppressed nations to their independence… If lasting peace is sought, it is essential to adopt international measures to improve the lot of the masses. Mankind’s well-being should take the place of hunger and oppression… Citizens of the world should be educated in such a way that they shall no longer feel envy, avarice and vengefulness.”

In recognition of Atatürk’s untiring efforts to build peace, the League of Nations paid tribute to him at his death in November 1938 as ” a genius international peacemaker”. In 1981, on the occasion of the Centennial of his birth, the United Nations and UNESCO honored the memory of the great Turkish Statesman who abhorred war – ” Unless the life of the nation faces peril, war is a crime,” – and expressed his faith in organized peace:” If war were to break out, nations would rush to join their armed forces and national resources. The swiftest and most effective measure is to establish an international organization which would prove to the aggressor that its aggression cannot pay.”

His creation of modern Turkey and his contribution to the world have made Atatürk an historic figure of enduring influence.

Atatürk exhibited enormous forward thinking in terms of his foreign policies. He maintained peaceful relations that would give Turkey world recognition as an important diplomatic country. But, he also defined the Turkish culture of respect, order and duty. One of his acts which points to his diplomacy was when, shortly before his death in 1938, as representatives of the Lausanne Treaty met in Montreaux in 1936, a new convention was drawn giving Turkey the right to fortify the Straits and to close them to belligerent warships.

ATATÜRK DECLARES; The Turkish Revolution

What is the Turkish Revolution? This revolution refers to a wider change than the word “ Revolution “ first suggests. Today, our country is governed in the best way that has abolished all the others that were practiced in many centuries.

The bond among the individuals that the nation suggests for its existence has changed its form and essential character, in other words, the nation has instituted its unity by the bond of “Turkish Nationality” instead of the bond of religion and sect.

The nation acknowledges the fact that science and the means that can be a nation’s reason of existence and power in the international struggle, can only be found in contemporary civilization, as a solid principle.

These changes that our great nation has performed in the course of its life are in summary one of the most magnificent revolutions that is much deeper than any revolution. 1925 ( M. E. I. S. D. I, p. 28 )

The real revolutionaries are those who know how to penetrate the true tendency in the souls and conscience of the people they want to direct to the revolution of progress. I would like to take this opportunity to stress that the true owner of the political and social revolutions, and the wonders Turkish nation performed in the last years, is the nation itself. It is you. If this progress and capacity hadn’t existed, nothing would have been sufficient to create it. Undoubtedly, the impossibility of taking a society which is at a certain level of civilization to a much higher level in no time is obvious. This is the main principle of the revolutions we’ve made and we are still making. It is definitely essential to get rid of the mentality that cannot accept it. Until now, there have been many that have this mentality that benumbs and rusts society’s mind. The fabricated nonsense in the minds will surely be expelled. Unless it is completely expelled, it is impossible restore the mind to its true light. 1925 ( Atatürk’s B. N., p. 92 – 93 )

A destructed country on the edge of the cliff … Bloody battles against many enemies … Year long war … And then, a new motherland, a new society, a new government that are esteemed at home and abroad, and continuous revolutions to reach these goals … Here is a summary of the Turkish revolution. 1935 ( Atatürk’s S. D. I, p. 365 )

Which one should be preferred for Turkey, gradual or sudden progress? There are two ways. One of them, as you all know, is the way of the French Revolution: Regimes would change, counter revolutions against revolutions would be made, a century and a half would pass while the left thrashing the right, the right stomping on the left …. Does this nation have that much blood in its veins and that long time to wait? 1922 ( İsmail Habib Sevük, For Atatürk, p. 73 )

The law of the revolution is superior to the existing law. As long as we are not killed and the movement started in our minds is not suffocated, the revolution we have started will not stop even for a single moment. 1923 ( İsmail Arar, Atatürk’s İzmit Press Conference, P. 56 )

The revolution is as bright, as hot and as far from us as the sun. I always find my direction using this sun, and go forward, forward, forward until it is too scorching and bright to get any closer. Then I stop, and redirect myself using the sun. ( Ahmet Cevat Emre, Huhit Magazine, Year : 4, Issue : 48, 1932, p.2 )

There are some periods in a nation’s history when all the physical and moral forces must be united and aimed at the same direction to reach certain goals. In recent years, our nation perceived the important results of such a movement of unity.

All the nationalist and republican forces must unite their power to defend the revolution and the country against internal and external threats.

Forces of the same kind must unit in the same manner. 1931 (Atatürk’ün S.D. III, P. 90)

Let all the world know that there is only one side, that I am on the side of the republic, the political and social revolution. On this matter, I do not even want to think that any citizen of the new Turkish Republic feels any different. 1924 ( Atatürk’s S. D. II, p. 189 )

Those with fresh ideas are those with the real ideas who see and perceive the right path. This is the main desire and the point of view of the nation we all must comply to. 1925 ( Mustafa Selim İmece, Atatürk’s S. D. K. and I. S. , p. 17 )

Friends, for the revolutions we have made and we are still making, we follow the light and the enlightened; our goal and skill is to enlighten the illiterate and encourage them to walk with us to reach the light. It would not only be ignorance, but also treachery to resort to a referendum which would hinder us from taking our republic to the level of contemporary civilization. In a country where 80 % of the population is illiterate, revolutions can not be decided by plebiscites!…1984 (Bâki Vandemir, Yerli, yabancı 80 imza Atatürk’ü Anlatıyor, P. 172)

We will perform all the requirements of the republic trusting the nation’s sharpness and capacity to progress, and never suspecting its determination. We know that we face many hindrances and difficulties. We will solve all of these problems one by one with determination and faith, and the unbeatable power of the love of the nation. It is that love of the nation, which is the source of never-ending power, fire and endurance in our hearts in spite of everything. 1924 ( Atatürk’s S. D. II, p. 166 )

Our nation is a self sacrificing one for its motherland, independence and freedom; This is a fact it has proven. Our nation is also jealously protective of the revolutions it has made. No one, no power can keep a nation that has such inbred virtues in its heart from treading the right path it walks on. 1924 ( Atatürk’s B. N., p. 84 )

As the height of the sun of revolution that rose on the horizon of Turkey, increased spreading its warmth, the heart of Turkish nation filled with the warmest love towards the world’s great and worthy feats, and all the principles of progress have been fully adopted. 1923 ( Atatürk’s T. T. B. IV, p.560 )

The obstacles that want to slow down the social and intellectual pace of our nation which is capable of every progress and maturity must absolutely be eliminated. 1924 ( Atatürk’s B. N., p. 86 )

We have made a great revolution. We have carried the country from one era to a new one. We have broken many old institutions. Those institutions have thousands of followers. We must not forget that they are waiting for the right time and opportunity. Even the most advanced democracies have employed hard measures to protect the regime, and we need the measures that protect the revolution even more than them. 1925 ( Avni Doğan, Independence, Establishment and Afterwards, p. 165 )

Sayfayı yazdırın Sayfayı yazdırın

Bir cevap yazın

E-posta hesabınız yayımlanmayacak. Gerekli alanlar * ile işaretlenmişlerdir